Brain : A Mysteries Organ.

Brain is the most complex and mysteries organ in human body. It is the organ which can not be fully understand till now. Brain makes us differ from other animals on the Earth, because we have ability to think, understand, learn and the most important is speaking in languages.Brain can also live after our death for few seconds.Size of human brain is much greater than any other living being on Earth, and is also evolving now.Our forefathers have smaller brain than us, hence less intelligent than us.We can store a lot of information in our brain.

Most Neuroscientists are of the view that soon mankind will be able to open the closed doors of the human brain. What they mean is that we will be able to solve the unsolved mysteries of the brain. There is a lot more to the human brain that most of us can think. What’s more amazing is the fact that most people do not even care to explore their true cognitive potentials and abilities. 

You might have heard the thing that humans have only be able to use 10 % or 20 % or lesser amount of their brain. There are billions and billions of neurons inside the human brain. Just imagine how these cells work together with one another to shape, create and channelize everything we think, see and do. It would be a real achievement if we will be able to count the number of neurons inside the brain with high levels of accuracy. But wait. It is also said that human brain is something that will be never be able to understand. We will discuss more of it later, but now it is time to read about the 5 most amazing unsolved mysteries of the human brain.

Nature or Nurture
So what is it that controls us, our genes or the environment in which we live and grow? This debate has going on for decades and decades, but we are far from reaching an absolute conclusion. Do our genes and all other biological components determine our intelligence? The question might sound simple to some of you, but it is not. Studies on identical twins have helped in providing some facts. But still, there is a lot more that needs to be done. One answer to this mystery can be that both, nature and nurture, have their own roles to play in influencing human development across the life span.

Brain Death
The second mystery is that how come the brain stops functioning? Well, there are a number of proposed answers to this problem or mystery. It is often said that that neuro-degenerative diseases cause this problem. Then the question arises that what is the cause of these diseases and how billions and billions of brain cells start dying all of a sudden. The researchers need to work more in order to solve this mystery.

Sleep
Why do we sleep and who do we see dreams? It might sound weird, but scientists still don’t know that why every human needs to sleep. A lot of research has been done on sleep and dreams, but we are still far from reaching the desired ends.

Memory
Why aren’t be able to remember a thing while recalling and why all of a sudden the same thing pops into our mind when we were not even trying to remember it. The human mind is indeed a complex and an unsolvable paradox. When it comes to the human memory, then there is no end to the types. That’s not all, as false memories are also there to intrigue as well confuse us.

The Mind Brain Problem
Scientists do not have an idea about where the brain ends and the mind begins. Most of you will say that the mind and brain are the same thing, but as a matter of fact they are not. Just read the thousands of books arguing on the mind brain problem that originated during the Greek times. The study of consciousness is indeed not for the faint hearted, so to speak. Investigations using EEGs, MRIs and all other brain scanning devices have provided some evidence, but it is still not enough to solve the mystery.

How is information coded in neural activity?
Neurons, the specialized cells of the brain, can produce brief spikes of voltage in their outer membranes. These electrical pulses travel along specialized extensions called axons to cause the release of chemical signals elsewhere in the brain. The binary, all-or-nothing spikes appear to carry information about the world: What do I see? Am I hungry? Which way should I turn? But what is the code of these millisecond bits of voltage? Spikes may mean different things at different places and times in the brain. In parts of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord), the rate of spiking often correlates with clearly definable external features, like the presence of a color or a face. In the peripheral nervous system, more spikes indicates more heat, a louder sound, or a stronger muscle contraction.

As we delve deeper into the brain, however, we find populations of neurons involved in more complex phenomena, like reminiscence, value judgments, simulation of possible futures, the desire for a mate, and so on—and here the signals become difficult to decrypt. The challenge is something like popping the cover off a computer, measuring a few transistors chattering between high and low voltage, and trying to guess the content of the Web page being surfed.

It is likely that mental information is stored not in single cells but in populations of cells and patterns of their activity. However, it is currently not clear how to know which neurons belong to a particular group; worse still, current technologies (like sticking fine electrodes directly into the brain) are not well suited to measuring several thousand neurons at once. Nor is it simple to monitor the connections of even one neuron: A typical neuron in the cortex receives input from some 10,000 other neurons.

Although traveling bursts of voltage can carry signals across the brain quickly, those electrical spikes may not be the only—or even the main—way that information is carried in nervous systems. ­Forward-looking studies are examining other possible information couriers: glial cells (poorly understood brain cells that are 10 times as common as neurons), other kinds of signaling mechanisms between cells (such as newly discovered gases and peptides), and the biochemical cascades that take place inside cells.


How are memories stored and retrieved?
When you learn a new fact, like someone’s name, there are physical changes in the structure of your brain. But we don’t yet comprehend exactly what those changes are, how they are orchestrated across vast seas of synapses and neurons, how they embody knowledge, or how they are read out decades later for retrieval.
One complication is that there are many kinds of memories.

The brain seems to distinguish short-term memory (remembering a phone number just long enough to dial it) from long-term memory (what you did on your last birthday). Within long-term memory, declarative memories (like names and facts) are distinct from non­declarative memories (riding a bicycle, being affected by a subliminal message), and within these general categories are numerous subtypes. Different brain structures seem to support different kinds of learning and memory; brain damage can lead to the loss of one type without disturbing the others.

Nonetheless, similar molecular mechanisms may be at work in these memory types. Almost all theories of memory propose that memory storage depends on synapses, the tiny connections between brain cells. When two cells are active at the same time, the connection between them strengthens; when they are not active at the same time, the connection weakens. Out of such synaptic changes emerges an association. Experience can, for example, fortify the connections between the smell of coffee, its taste, its color, and the feel of its warmth. Since the populations of neurons connected with each of these sensations are typically activated at the same time, the connections between them can cause all the sensory associations of coffee to be triggered by the smell alone.

But looking only at associations—and strengthened connections between neurons—may not be enough to explain memory. The great secret of memory is that it mostly encodes the relationships between things more than the details of the things themselves.
When you memorize a melody, you encode the relationships between the notes, not the notes per se, which is why you can easily sing the song in a different key.
Memory retrieval is even more mysterious than storage.
When I ask if you know Alex Ritchie, the answer is immediately obvious to you, and there is no good theory to explain how memory retrieval can happen so quickly. Moreover, the act of retrieval can destabilize the memory.
When you recall a past event, the memory becomes temporarily susceptible to erasure. Some intriguing recent experiments show it is possible to chemically block memories from reforming during that window, suggesting new ethical questions that require careful consideration.

Why Einstein Brain is better than You ? 
There are six main differences between German physicist Albert Einstein’s brain and those of ordinary human beings.
First, Einstein had a greater number of glial brain cells to feed the neurons in his brain, suggesting the nerve cells in his brain needed more fueling cells because they consumed more nourishment as a result of higher brain activity.
Secondly, at roughly 1,200 grams (2.64 pounds), Einstein’s brain weighed at least 200 grams (0.44 pounds) less than the average male brain for his time period.
Thirdly, portions of Einstein’s brain, such as the cerebral cortex, were thinner, yet more saturated with neurons, than corresponding areas inside mainstream brains.
A fourth difference is that deep furrows, formally called sulci, sliced Einstein’s brain in the right parietal lobe and the left parietal lobe; these two areas are responsible for calculations and math aptitude. Fifth, Einstein’s brain had an unusually wide berth that was nearly 20-percent wider than the average human.
The sixth and final difference was that a fragment of Einstein’s brain was missing; not only was his lateral sulcus, or Sylvian fissure, shorter than normal, but it was not whole.

The abundance of glial cells in the mathematical genius has been the most researched anomaly within Einstein’s brain. Neurologists who have studied the high percentage of glial cells in the left and right sides of both the frontal lobe and the parietal lobe of Einstein’s brain theorize that this is evidence his brain consumed more energy than normal people. Every human brain is composed of both nerve cells and glial cells. While the nerve cells create synapses while synthesizing information, memory, language and learning processes, the glial cells are the assistant cells that provide energy for all the brain’s processes, including thinking and communicating.

Without glial cells, neurons could not function. Besides providing nutrition, glial cells insulate neurons and clean the brain of dead nerve cells. The increase in glial cells was located mostly on the left side of Einstein’s brain, which would correlate with his greater ability for left-brain logic and analysis.

The differences found in Einstein’s brain have been subject to controversy. Many critics chide that researchers only studied four small sections of the brain and not an extensive amount. Also, the brain was compared to an extremely small control group of less than a dozen people, limiting comparison. Furthermore, many of the subjects in the control group were at least two decades younger than Einstein, prompting critics to suggest his brain disparities might merely be linked to his age. The lack of comparison to other geniuses and innovators of Einstein’s caliber is also a drawback, critics claim.

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